- The structure of an APA research paper
- Table of contents
- Online Writing Lab: APA Abstract Page - Aims Community College
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The structure of an APA research paper
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- The Abstract Page.
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- Writing a Great Abstract | Step-by-Step Guide with Examples?
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Table of contents
Creative Writing. English Grammar. Tags apa apa format citations resources style and usage style guide. Start by telling us who you are. English as a Second Language English is not my first language. Academic I need to have my journal article, dissertation, or term paper edited and proofread, or I need help with an admissions essay or proposal. Author I have a novel, manuscript, play, or ebook. Business or Corporate I need editing and proofreading for my white papers, reports, manuals, press releases, marketing materials, and other business documents.
Student I need to have my essay, project, assignment, or term paper edited and proofread. Personal I want to sound professional and to get hired. The Publication Manual 2. Your article or dissertation or conference presentation uses a ploy similar to that of an anglerfish.
- Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style.
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- How to write an abstract - A good example of an abstract: things to remember.
There are difference s, of course. Rule 2. First, it needs to find its audience. That is, it needs to encapsulate the essence of the article in a way that gives all essential information but sifts out the inessential. The core of that information is consistent across articles, but specific kinds of articles—for example, a literature review or meta-analysis, a theory-oriented paper, or a case study—also have specific requirements.
Third, yep, it needs to be in APA Style. And because there are special rules that apply to abstracts in terms of length word limits vary from journal to journal and typically range from to words , required elements, and need to make sense in isolation from the article, there are a number of rules that are unique to the abstract. For example, there are specific rules that apply to numbers, to abbreviations, to citations.
But today does seem an appropriate day to begin to look at the rules governing numbers in APA Style. The basic rule with numbers is simplicity itself: Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below As with so many things, the devil is in the details. This rule is subject to a number of exceptions. Most of them make sense intuitively, and all have a sound logical basis if considered individually.
Let me start by noting one change between the 5th and 6th editions of the Publication Manual. Rule 3. The reason was to compare like with like, but in practice, it sometimes led to odd results. The writer would scan each paragraph looking for numbers 10 and above, and there are some very long paragraphs in research papers! Therefore, for simplicity and consistency, that rule is no longer applied in the 6th edition. What exceptions do exist to using words to express numbers below 10? One rule is that numbers in the abstract of a paper are set as figures.
A main reason for that is that space is at a premium in the abstract, which frequently is excerpted from the paper and set in a bibliographic record field. But in any case, conciseness is a virtue in an abstract.
A second related rule is that figures are used instead of numbers in graphical displays within a paper. Again, a main part of the reasoning is that space is at a premium in a graphic and the numbers are usually there for comparison purposes. Side-by-side figures are easier than side-by-side words to compare. Gimme Structure by Stefanie Abstracts have been addressed on the APA Style blog before twice , in fact, and very well both times—do give them a read or reread! According to the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health , These formats were developed in the late s and early s to assist health professionals in selecting clinically relevant and methodologically valid journal articles.
Example abstract: Objective: In this study, we investigated the psychological effects of radical gamma-radiation-caused mutation and transformation to determine whether the transformation affects personality and mood as well as physicality. Not very long is it? The Manual also gives suggestions on other ways to save space. If you refer to them, it might help you speeding up the reviewing process a little bit, since they will not have to make a large amount of technical corrections. In the following paragraph, the sections of a scientific paper are listed chronologically from the beginning of the paper to its end providing some short ideas on the core features that those sections should contain.
Normally an experimental report consists of the following sections:. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.
Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.
Online Writing Lab: APA Abstract Page - Aims Community College
Beginning a new page after the first one introducing your research, your abstract page should already contain the above mentioned running head. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Do not indent. Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. Moreover, it should be a single paragraph double-spaced with a normal lenght of somewhat between and words.
You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: italicized , and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases. After having briefly described your entire research conducted in your paper, you can now focus on a more detailed presentation of the theoretical background of your research topic. Never forget to refer to the authors you received the theoretical information from and to enlist them later on in the reference list.
This section will contain information about the participants of your experimental study, the research design you have employed, the procedure underlying your experiment or whatever it is you did to collect some qualitative or quantitative data such as a brief information about the analysis method for instance: a two- factor ANOVA you have used to analyze the data collected.